Dating and mating reading the body language signals pdf

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Many argue that the origins of language probably relate closely to the origins of modern human behavior, but there is little agreement about the implications and directionality of this connection.This shortage of empirical evidence has led many scholars to regard the entire topic as unsuitable for serious study.The topic is difficult to study because of the lack of direct evidence.Consequently, scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from other kinds of evidence such as the fossil record, archaeological evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language acquisition, and comparisons between human language and systems of communication existing among animals (particularly other primates).Relying heavily on Atkinson's work, a subsequent study has explored the rate at which phonemes develop naturally, comparing this rate to some of Africa's oldest languages.The results suggest that language first evolved around 350,000–150,000 years ago, which is around the time when modern Homo sapiens evolved.

Language is ruled out because the best way to guard against being deceived is to ignore all signals except those that are instantly verifiable. For language to work, then, listeners must be confident that those with whom they are on speaking terms are generally likely to be honest.A peculiar feature of language is "displaced reference", which means reference to topics outside the currently perceptible situation.This property prevents utterances from being corroborated in the immediate "here" and "now".Objecting to the sudden mutation idea, these authors argue that even if a chance mutation were to install a language organ in an evolving bipedal primate, it would be adaptively useless under all known primate social conditions.A very specific social structure—one capable of upholding unusually high levels of public accountability and trust—must have evolved before or concurrently with language to make reliance on "cheap signals" (words) an evolutionarily stable strategy.

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